Retention of total carotenoid and ß-carotene in yellow sweet cassava (Manihot esculenta
Background: Over the last decade, considerable efforts have been made to identify cassava cultivars to improve the vitamin A nutritional status of undernourished populations, especially in northeast Brazil, where cassava is one of the principal and essentially only nutritional source. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the total carotenoid, ß-carotene, and its all-E-, 9-, and 13-Z-ß- carotene isomers content in seven yellow sweet cassava roots and their retention after three boiling cooking methods. Design: The total carotenoid, ß-carotene, and its all-E-, 9-, and 13-Z-ß-carotene isomers in yellow sweet cassava samples were determined by ultraviolet/visible spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography, respectively, before and after applying the cooking methods. All analyses were performed in triplicate. Results: The total carotenoid in raw roots varied from 2.64 to 14.15 µg/g and total b-carotene from 1.99 to 10.32 µg/g. The b-carotene predominated in all the roots. The Hibrido 2003 14 08 cultivar presented the highest b-carotene content after cooking methods 1 and 3. The 1153 Klainasik cultivar presented the highest 9-Z-ß-carotene content after cooking by method 3. The highest total carotenoid retention was observed in cultivar 1456 Vermelhinha and that of b-carotene for the Hibrido 2003 14 11 cultivar, both after cooking method 1. Evaluating the real retention percentage (RR%) in sweet yellow cassava after home cooking methods showed differences that can be attributed to the total initial carotenoid contents. However, no cooking method uniformly provided a higher total carotenoid or ß-carotene retention in all the cultivars. Conclusion: Differences were found in the cooking methods among the samples regarding total carotenoid or ß-carotene retention, suggesting that the different behaviors of the cultivars need to be further analyzed. However, high percentages of total carotenoid or ß-carotene retention were observed and can minimize vitamin A deficiency in low-income populations.
de Carvalho, J.L.V.; Carvalho, L.M.J.; Fukuda, W.G.; Godoy, R.L.O.; Nutti, M.R.; Oliveira, A.R.G.; Pacheco, S.; Pereira, E.J. Retention of total carotenoid and ß-carotene in yellow sweet cassava (Manihot esculenta. Food and Nutrition Research (2012) 56: [DOI: 10.3402/fnr.v56i0.15788]