In Zimbabwe, studies were made of the responses of Glossina pallidipes Austen to known and candidate repellents. Various chemicals, dispensed at c. 5–10 mg/h, were placed beside Epsilon traps already baited with a blend of acetone, octenol, 4-methylphenol and 3-n-propylphenol. Pentanoic or hexanoic acids or acetophenone halved the catch and 2-methoxyphenol reduced the catch by 90%. There were no consistent differences in the responses of males and females. Pentanoic acid or acetophenone or 2-methoxyphenol at an unbaited trap reduced the catch by 40%, 75% and 60%, respectively. Baiting traps with a combination of pentanoic acid, acetophenone and 2-methoxyphenol did not reduce the catch below that produced by 2-methoxyphenol alone. Pentanoic acid and 2-methoxyphenol reduced the efficiency of traps from c. 40% to 20% but acetophenone had no significant effect. Acetophenone and 2-methoxyphenol halved the numbers of tsetse attracted to a target baited with acetone, octenol and phenols but none had a significant effect on the proportion that landed. 2-Methoxyphenol significantly reduced the numbers of tsetse attracted to a source of natural ox odour but only pentanoic acid had a significant effect on feeding responses, reducing the proportion that fed on an ox from 59 to 45%. It is concluded that these repellents do not provide any useful degree of protection against trypanosomiasis. In areas where tsetse are abundant (500 bites/ox/day) and infection rates in tsetse are high (>5%) it is highly unlikely that any repellents would be useful. However, in areas where tsetse are less abundant (1 bite/ox/day) and/or infection rates are low (c. 0.5%) the potent, unidentified repellents present in human odour might effectively complement the control of disease using trypanocidal drugs.
Torr, S.J.; Hall, D.R.; Mangwiro, T.N.C. Responses of Glossina pallidipes Diptera: Glossinidae to synthetic repellents in the field. Bulletin of Entomological Research (1996) 86 (05) 609. [DOI: 10.1017/S0007485300039419]