6-Nitro-2,3-dihydroimidazo[2,1-b][1,3]oxazole derivatives were initially studied for tuberculosis within a backup program for the clinical trial agent pretomanid (PA-824). Phenotypic screening of representative examples against kinetoplastid diseases unexpectedly led to the identification of DNDI-VL-2098 as a potential first-in-class drug candidate for visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Additional work was then conducted to delineate its essential structural features, aiming to improve solubility and safety without compromising activity against VL. While the 4-nitroimidazole portion was specifically required, several modifications to the aryloxy side chain were well-tolerated e.g., exchange of the linking oxygen for nitrogen (or piperazine), biaryl extension, and replacement of phenyl rings by pyridine. Several less lipophilic analogues displayed improved aqueous solubility, particularly at low pH, although stability toward liver microsomes was highly variable. Upon evaluation in a mouse model of acute Leishmania donovani infection, one phenylpyridine derivative (37) stood out, providing efficacy surpassing that of the original preclinical lead.
Thompson, A.M.; O’Connor, P.D.; Blaser, A.; Yardley, V.; Maes, L.; Gupta, S.; Launay, D.; Martin, D.; Franzblau, S.G.; Wan, B.; Wang, Y.; Ma, Z.; Denny, W.A. Repositioning Antitubercular 6-Nitro-2,3-dihydroimidazo[2,1-b][1,3]oxazoles for Neglected Tropical Diseases: Structure&#8211;Activity Studies on a Preclinical Candidate for Visceral Leishmaniasis. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry (2016) 59 (6) 2530-2550. [DOI: 10.1021/acs.jmedchem.5b01699]