Regulatory tools: Technical.
In lower-income countries, and particularly amongst lower-income communities, the regulatory process needs to recognize alternative means of delivering clean water and sanitation in order to achieve the Universal Service Obligation. Achieving USO should not default to the level of a standpost serving a hundred families. This summary sheet illustrates some of the many variations of service and pricing differentiation to serve the poor which can be considered by economic regulators in agreeing asset management plans for peri-urban areas. Although apparently requiring a 'lowering' in technical standards all these methods have been used and have enabled the delivery of effective water and sanitation services to the poor at a level which householders report is much more satisfactory than queuing at 3.00 am for water from a standpost.
Center for Water Science, Cranfield University, UK, 12 pp.