Reducing the cost of technical and vocational education


This study examined ways of reducing the costs of technical and vocational education programmes, particularly in developing countries. The Report is structured so that the first section offers an initial, extensive survey of recent and current literature. This has been augmented by perspectives obtained from interviews with key individuals with substantial consultancy experience, and through consultation with an expert panel at a seminar held as part of this project in October 1991. This has enabled the identification of a number of key issues, explored in greater depth in Part B.

This part of the Report is based largely on field investigations by the project team in Thailand, Nigeria, Washington (with The World Bank and USAID) and Geneva with ILO/UNDP. It also draws upon further literature analysis, including project documents and field manuals of The World Bank, USAID and the ILO. The field work in Thailand presented opportunities to examine projects funded by the German, Austrian, Italian, Canadian and Japanese Governments, together with World Bank, ILO/UNDP and UNBRO projects. Consultancy visits to Nigeria by two members of the team enabled further evidence to be collected and perceptions checked. The recent substantial two-volume analysis of developments in Latin America by CINTERFOR and ILO was also drawn upon extensively, as was the range of recent publications from The World Bank's Education and Employment Division. Appendix One lists the documentary sources drawn upon for the Report.

The Report concludes with a number of recommendations on intervention strategies, which from the project findings suggest ways in which either the costs of technical and vocational education might be reduced (efficiency strategies), or the benefits from a given level of investment might be enhanced (effectiveness strategies).


Educational Paper No. 3, DFID, London, UK, ISBN 0 90250 063 5, 32 pp. [reprinted in 1998]

Reducing the cost of technical and vocational education

Published 1 January 1993