This study examined ways of reducing the costs of technical and
vocational education programmes, particularly in developing countries.
The Report is structured so that the first section offers an initial,
extensive survey of recent and current literature. This has been
augmented by perspectives obtained from interviews with key individuals
with substantial consultancy experience, and through consultation with
an expert panel at a seminar held as part of this project in October
1991. This has enabled the identification of a number of key issues,
explored in greater depth in Part B.
This part of the Report is based largely on field investigations by the
project team in Thailand, Nigeria, Washington (with The World Bank and
USAID) and Geneva with ILO/UNDP. It also draws upon further literature
analysis, including project documents and field manuals of The World
Bank, USAID and the ILO. The field work in Thailand presented
opportunities to examine projects funded by the German, Austrian,
Italian, Canadian and Japanese Governments, together with World Bank,
ILO/UNDP and UNBRO projects. Consultancy visits to Nigeria by two
members of the team enabled further evidence to be collected and
perceptions checked. The recent substantial two-volume analysis of
developments in Latin America by CINTERFOR and ILO was also drawn upon
extensively, as was the range of recent publications from The World
Bank's Education and Employment Division. Appendix One lists the
documentary sources drawn upon for the Report.
The Report concludes with a number of recommendations on intervention
strategies, which from the project findings suggest ways in which either
the costs of technical and vocational education might be reduced
(efficiency strategies), or the benefits from a given level of
investment might be enhanced (effectiveness strategies).
Educational Paper No. 3, DFID, London, UK, ISBN 0 90250 063 5, 32 pp. [reprinted in 1998]
Reducing the cost of technical and vocational education