The literature on corruption tends to focus on grand corruption for contracts and licenses worth large sums of money. However, 1.6 billion people annually have to pay a petty bribe to get public services. In developing countries, such bribes reduce the effectiveness of donor aid intended to reduce poverty. Actions like replacing corrupt officials with computers, promoting more open government, and offering citizens a choice between institutions delivering a service can help reduce bribery in service delivery.
Rose, R. Reducing bribery for public services delivered to citizens. U4 Anti-Corruption Resource Centre, CMI, Bergen, Norway (2015) 6 pp. [U4 Brief, October 2015: 11]