Private road associations (PRAs) manage two thirds of the road network in Sweden. They manage the roads at less cost and with better results than the Government road agencies. In fact, the PRAs perform so well that some urban municipalities request the associations to manage the municipal roads which connect to the private roads. There are also PRAs that are responsible for ferry services, for example in the Stockholm archipelago.
Ivarsson, S.; Calvo, C.M. Private-Public Partnership for low volume roads: the Swedish Private Roads Associations. (2003)
Private-Public Partnership for low volume roads: the Swedish Private Roads Associations.