Practical strategies for pro-poor tourism. Case studies of Makuleke and Manyeleti tourism initiatives: South Africa.
This research note investigates the extent to which pro-poor tourism elements embodied in two investment programmes of the South African Government are achieved. The two programmes are the Spatial Development Initiative (SDI) and Community-Public-Private-Partnership (CPPP) Programmes. Both programmes aim to facilitate new tourism investment into underdeveloped areas of South Africa, but which have significant tourism potential. The underlying philosophy of both programmes is that tourism investment, if correctly structured, can deliver significant social and economic benefits to rural communities.
Two key themes will be explored in this paper. First, we examine how effective the SDI and CPPP programmes have been in delivering benefits to the poor. In this regard, the ability of the state, the community and the investor/developer to implement the objectives of pro-poor tourism at a practical level is examined. Secondly the paper highlights that the extent to which economic empowerment of local communities takes place, is intricately linked to the nature and extent of the land rights of those rural communities. The paper will argue that if the communities have ownership of an asset base, there is potential for strong economic and social empowerment. Where they do not, communities may still benefit from the tourism process, but to a lesser degree. The extent of empowerment is thus intricately linked to the land reform programme in South Africa.
The paper is made up of 4 main sections. Part 1 provides the broader policy context within which the case studies are being implemented; this also provides an introduction to the SDI and CPPP programmes. Part 2 focuses on the Manyeleti case study, a project being supported by the Phalaborwa SDI. Part 3 examines the Makuleke project, which is regarded as a pilot project of the CPPP programme. Part 4 reflects on the cases, and draws lessons from the experience of both.
London, UK: ODI, PPT Working Paper No. 2, 52 pp.