Please synthesise information and lessons learned from the Indonesian National Program for Community Empowerment (PNPM) and where relevant other community-driven development (CDD) programmes in Indonesia, with particular reference to contribution to gender equality, and identifying to what extent civil society organisations (CSOs) have supported communities to get value from CDD programmes.
The National Program for Community Empowerment Mandiri (PNPM Mandiri) was launched by the Government of Indonesia in 2007. It is a national programme within the overall policy framework established to implement programmes aimed at poverty alleviation, and strengthening local governance and service delivery. PNPM adopts a community-driven development (CDD) approach, providing direct block grants to local communities at the sub-district level to finance an open menu of local development priorities. A review of evaluations of PNPM programmes highlights that PNPM Rural is contributing to improvements in poverty reduction, household welfare, access to health services resulting from better roads and bridges, and long-term employment. The impacts have been stronger in poor and remote areas where large infrastructure gaps are the primary factor limiting movement out of poverty.
Haider, H. PNPM/Community-driven development in Indonesia (GSDRC Helpdesk Research Report). Governance and Social Development Resource Centre, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK (2012) 17 pp.