There is limited research on bottom-up adaptation economics in general – and climate change adaptation in animal agriculture in particular – to guide adaptation actions. This study therefore tries to address costing and planning of adaptation to climate change in animal agriculture in Tanzania. The study adopted a bottom-up costing of adaptation actions that were identified using a case study approach. A questionnaire interview involving a sample of pastoralists and agro-pastoralist was conducted to identify and quantify impacts due to climate change, and currently-used adaptation actions and costs, in some selected areas in Same, Chamwino and Mvomero districts. This was followed by key informants’ interviews at district and national level to get insights on developmental and climate change policies and actions, and their costs.
A mini-workshop was later conducted to establish priority adaptation actions and their costs. The workshop involved local-, district- and national-level stakeholders. A country feedback workshop was then held to present initial findings and get additional inputs from experts and other stakeholders.
The case study findings showed that a changing climate has resulted in environmental shocks and extreme events such as drought, excessive rains, floods and high temperatures, which have an caused inadequate supply of water and pasture, increases in disease incidences, and death of animals. It is probable that in the future such events are likely to have even more serious repercussions and therefore there is a compelling need to plan mitigation measures.
Through this study, various adaptation actions envisioned to be capable of fostering resilience have been identified and categorised as addressing three levels: development deficit, climate variability, or climate change-related extremes and shocks. Current annual adaptation costs were estimated at 226.7 M US$ and up to 3,987.5 M US$ by 2030; some of these costs are already being incurred by farmers (such as those involving temporary and permanent migration). From this study, some policy-relevant recommendations have been formulated:
1. The need to establish an environmental section in the Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries Development (MLFD).
2. The necessity for increased investment systems and structures for animal agriculture.
3. The need for increased investment in research, extension and training.
4. The requirement for more bottom-up studies on the economics of climate change in agriculture to be undertaken in order to fill knowledge gaps, apply existing and emerging methods, and improve the estimates.
Tumbo, S.; Mutabazi, K.; Kimambo, A.; Rwehumbiza, F. Planning and costing agricultural adaptation to climate change in the pastoral livestock system of Tanzania. International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED), London, UK (2011) 38 pp.