There is limited research on bottom-up adaptation economics in general –
and climate change adaptation in animal agriculture in particular – to
guide adaptation actions. This study therefore tries to address costing
and planning of adaptation to climate change in animal agriculture in
Tanzania. The study adopted a bottom-up costing of adaptation actions
that were identified using a case study approach. A questionnaire
interview involving a sample of pastoralists and agro-pastoralist was
conducted to identify and quantify impacts due to climate change, and
currently-used adaptation actions and costs, in some selected areas in
Same, Chamwino and Mvomero districts. This was followed by key
informants’ interviews at district and national level to get insights on
developmental and climate change policies and actions, and their costs.
A mini-workshop was later conducted to establish priority adaptation
actions and their costs. The workshop involved local-, district- and
national-level stakeholders. A country feedback workshop was then held
to present initial findings and get additional inputs from experts and
The case study findings showed that a changing climate has resulted in
environmental shocks and extreme events such as drought, excessive
rains, floods and high temperatures, which have an caused inadequate
supply of water and pasture, increases in disease incidences, and death
of animals. It is probable that in the future such events are likely to
have even more serious repercussions and therefore there is a compelling
need to plan mitigation measures.
Through this study, various adaptation actions envisioned to be capable
of fostering resilience have been identified and categorised as
addressing three levels: development deficit, climate variability, or
climate change-related extremes and shocks. Current annual adaptation
costs were estimated at 226.7 M US$ and up to 3,987.5 M US$ by 2030;
some of these costs are already being incurred by farmers (such as those
involving temporary and permanent migration). From this study, some
policy-relevant recommendations have been formulated:
1. The need to establish an environmental section in the Ministry of
Livestock and Fisheries Development (MLFD).
2. The necessity for increased investment systems and structures for
3. The need for increased investment in research, extension and
4. The requirement for more bottom-up studies on the economics of
climate change in agriculture to be undertaken in order to fill
knowledge gaps, apply existing and emerging methods, and improve the
Tumbo, S.; Mutabazi, K.; Kimambo, A.; Rwehumbiza, F. Planning and costing agricultural adaptation to climate change in the pastoral livestock system of Tanzania. International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED), London, UK (2011) 38 pp.
Planning and costing agricultural adaptation to climate change in the pastoral livestock system of Tanzania.