This rigorous literature review focuses on the four interrelated areas
of pedagogy, curriculum, teaching practices and teacher education in
developing countries. It aimed to review existing evidence to inform
future programme design and policy-making undertaken by DFID’s Research
and Evidence division, and other agencies and researchers for the global
good. In particular, it aimed to present:
- a clear and authoritative overview of the frameworks and assumptions
which underpin pedagogic practices in developed and developing
countries and in relation to curriculum and teacher education;
- an authoritative summary of the quality and extent of evidence
supporting those assumptions, focusing on developing countries;
- existing evidence for developing effective pedagogic interventions in
lower- and middle-income countries that can guide development
- critical evidence gaps to guide the development of future research and
The overarching question was: Which pedagogic practices, in which
contexts and under what conditions, most effectively support all
students to learn at primary and secondary levels in developing
This was explored through three sub-questions:
1. What pedagogical practices are being used by teachers in formal and
informal classrooms in developing countries?
2. What is the evidence on the effectiveness of these pedagogical
practices, in what conditions, and with what population of learners?
3. How can teacher education (curriculum and practicum) and the school
curriculum and guidance materials best support effective pedagogy?
Westbrook, J.; Durrani, N.; Brown, R.; Orr, D.; Pryor, J.; Boddy, J.; Salvi, F. Pedagogy, curriculum, teaching practices and teacher education in developing countries. Education rigorous literature review. Department for International Development (DFID), London, UK (2013) iv + 144 pp.