Optimisation of waste stabilisation pond design for pathogen removal using field assessments and hydraulic modelling. Final Report.
The central hypothesis of this project was that waste stabilisation pond (WSP) systems often under-perform resulting in poor quality effluents which do not meet WHO faecal coliform effluent guidelines required for reuse. Under performance is caused principally by hydraulic short-circuiting associated with inadequate design criteria, inadequate operation and maintenance, and/or adverse meteorological conditions. This hypothesis was shown to be correct during WSP field evaluations. The reasons have been identified and performance has been improved through a series of interventions.