The central hypothesis of this project was that waste stabilisation pond (WSP) systems often under-perform resulting in poor quality effluents which do not meet WHO faecal coliform effluent guidelines required for reuse. Under performance is caused principally by hydraulic short-circuiting associated with inadequate design criteria, inadequate operation and maintenance, and/or adverse meteorological conditions. This hypothesis was shown to be correct during WSP field evaluations. The reasons have been identified and performance has been improved through a series of interventions.
Optimisation of waste stabilisation pond design for pathogen removal using field assessments and hydraulic modelling. Final Report.