In the recent past, genomic tools, especially molecular markers, have been extensively used for understanding genome dynamics as well for applied aspects in crop breeding. Several new genomics technologies such as next generation sequencing (NGS), high-throughput marker genotyping, -omics technologies have emerged as powerful tools for understanding genome variation in crop species at DNA, RNA as well as protein level. These technologies promise to provide an insight into the way gene(s) are expressed and regulated in cell and to unveil metabolic pathways involved in trait(s) of interest for breeders not only in model-/major- but even for under-resourced crop species which were once considered “orphan” crops. In parallel, genetic variation for a species present not only in cultivated genepool but even in landraces and wild species can be harnessed by using new genetic approaches such as advanced-backcross QTL (AB-QTL) analysis, introgression libraries (ILs), multi-parent advanced generation intercross (MAGIC) population and association genetics. The gene(s) or genomic regions, responsible for trait(s) of interest, identified either through conventional linkage mapping or above mentioned approaches can be introgressed or pyramided to develop superior genotypes through molecular breeding approaches such as marker-assisted backcrossing (MABC), marker assisted recurrent selection (MARS) and genome wide selection (GWS). This article provides an overview on some recent genomic tools and novel genetic and breeding approaches as mentioned above with a final aim of crop improvement.
Varshney, R.K.; Dubey, A. Novel genomic tools and modern genetic and breeding approaches for crop improvement. Journal of Plant Biochemistry and Biotechnology (2009) 18 (2) 127-138.