Morphological and genetic differentiation of the African clupeid Limnothrissa miodon 34 years after its introduction to Lake Kivu
The evolutionary consequences of an artificial introduction of the clupeid Limnothrissa miodon from Lake Tanganyika into Lake Kivu, East Africa were examined. In 1959, 57 400 fry (mixture of Limnothrissa and the related clupeid, Stolothrissa tanganicae), were released into Lake Kivu to boost fisheries production. Comparisons were made between respective source and transplant populations 34 years later (1993) using morphometrics (‘truss’ method), allozymes (29 enzyme-coding loci) and mitochondrial (mt) DNA variation (RFLP analysis of PCR-amplified ND5/6 genes). Significant morphological and genetic differentiation between source and transplant samples was detected, with a distinct clustering of Kivu Limnothrissa on respective dendrograms, especially at the morphometric and mtDNA levels. Differentiation within Lake Tanganyika was, however, consistently higher than that between lakes. Allozymic diversity was similar in samples from both lakes (Lake Tanganyika: heterozygosity = 0.0658, mean number of alleles=1.44; Lake Kivu: heterozygosity = 0.0655; mean number of alleles = 1.48), however, a significantly lower mtDNA haplotype diversity was detected in Lake Kivu (Lake Tanganyika: 0.905; Lake Kivu: 0.755). Data suggest that high post-introduction mortality and various demographic factors reduced the effective population size of the introduced population to tens rather than thousands of individuals, resulting in a reduction in genetic diversity and founder effect.
Hauser, L.; Pitcher, T.J.; Carvalho, G.R. Morphological and genetic differentiation of the African clupeid Limnothrissa miodon 34 years after its introduction to Lake Kivu. Journal of Fish Biology (1995) 47 (sa) 127-144. [DOI: 10.1111/j.1095-8649.1995.tb06049.x]