Failure of the Mtera-Kidatu Reservoir System within the Rufiji River Basin in Tanzania in the early 1990s is investigated by considering four possible causes (i.e. sudden decrease in inflows, sudden increase in losses, sudden increase in hydropower generation, or unnecessary spills; or a combination of these), and it was found that unaccounted spillage seems to be the main cause. Consequently, the system's simulation model has been proposed in this paper taking into consideration the flows that are generated in the intervening catchment between Mtera and Kidatu, with the operational policy that maximum power is produced most of the time at Kidatu because Kidatu has higher head for power generation than Ntera. It is suggested that if this proposed model had been in place earlier, the Reservoir would not have run dry in the 1991-94 period. The proposed model operates the reservoir system in an integrated manner by considering the flows into the Mtera Reservoir and accounting for flows generated by the intervening catchment.
Hydro-Africa 2003, CD Proceedings, 17-19 November 2003, Arusha, Tanzania, pp 16