The objective of this report is to present data and expert knowledge on
poverty and zoonoses hotspots to inform prioritisation of study areas on
the transmission of disease in emerging livestock systems in the
developing world, where prevention of zoonotic disease might bring
greatest benefit to poor people.
Mapping and measuring the burden of zoonoses, the density and number of
poor livestock keepers and emerging markets for livestock products can
help identify the ‘hotspots’ where zoonoses not only impose significant
burdens but where zoonoses management is likely to be pro-poor (targeted
at poor livestock keepers and poor consumers of livestock products) and
have most impact on helping small farmers reach emerging markets.
All zoonoses are not equal and a first step of the study was to
categorise zoonoses according to epidemiology and impact. Three groups
of zoonoses were considered:
- Endemic zoonoses are present in many places and affect many people and
- Outbreak or epidemic zoonoses are sporadic in temporal and spatial
- Emerging zoonoses newly appear in a population or have existed
previously but are rapidly increasing in incidence or geographical
range. Many occur as outbreaks.
The first chapter reviews the substantial literature on prioritising
disease and identifies prioritisation criteria relevant to this study,
namely: burden of human disease; impacts on livestock production and
productivity; amenability to agricultural intervention; and, concern
because of emergence or severity. Twenty-four zoonoses of high
importance to poor people were identified, 13 of which were investigated
The next chapter reviews current evidence on poverty and livestock, on
livestock systems and their dynamics, and on zoonoses and how they are
The next chapter presents evidence from a systematic review of over
1,000 studies on the prevalence of the 13 priority zoonoses in people
and animals. It focuses on the endemic zoonoses that impose greatest
burden and a ‘top 20’ list is given of geographical hotspots. Data on
zoonoses are also extracted from the WHO Global Burden of Disease and
the ‘top 20’ countries identified. A case study comparing this
systematic review with an ‘in-country review’ focusing on grey
literature and literature in a language other than English is included.
Finally, some of the challenges of the study and need for caution in
interpreting the results are discussed. Maps are presented.
The next chapter updates the map of emerging disease events of Jones et
al. (2008). For the first time, it maps emerging zoonoses as distinct
from other emerging disease events. A ‘top 20’ of geographical hotspots
is given. Maps are presented. The last chapter provides maps of regional
agroecosystems and summarises numbers of livestock, people and poor
livestock keepers by system as well as the zoonoses context. It also
draws some global conclusions from the study.
Annexes provide references for the papers in the systematic review of
endemic zoonoses, the incountry review, and the systematic review of
emerging zoonotic events. They provide information on the long list of
zoonoses and the selection of the 13 most important to poor people in
terms of burden and economic impacts.
ILRI. Mapping of poverty and likely zoonoses hotspots. Zoonoses Project 4. Report to Department for International Development, UK. ILRI, Nairobi, Kenya (2012) 119 pp.
Mapping of poverty and likely zoonoses hotspots. Zoonoses Project 4. Report to Department for International Development, UK.