The aim of this report is to review the determinants, prevalence, safety and acceptability of male circumcision, focusing on sub-Saharan Africa. The first section reviews the religious, cultural and social determinants of male circumcision and estimates the global and regional prevalences. The second section summarizes medical aspects of the procedure, including medical indications for circumcision, surgical methods used and the complications of circumcision carried out in clinical and non-clinical settings. The third section focuses on the public health implications of the fact that male circumcision reduces risk of HIV infection, including a summary of the acceptability of adult male circumcision in currently non-circumcising populations in sub-Saharan Africa with high incidence of HIV. It is concluded that there is increasing demand for circumcision in southern Africa and this demand must be met by circumcision services that are safe, voluntary and affordable, and embedded in comprehensive HIV prevention programming.
LSHTM; UNAIDS; WHO. Male Circumcision: Global Trends and Determinants of Prevalence, Safety and Acceptability. (2007) 35 pp.