This review examines research that has been conducted on a number of LEIA technologies in the context of subsistence agriculture. The review focuses on technologies designed to address problems of soil fertility and weed control, including intercropping, alley cropping, cover cropping and green manuring, biomass transfer, compost, animal manure and improved and enriched fallows. The review examines both the bio-physical and socio-economic aspects in order to better understand the reasons for the variable take-up of these technologies by farmers.
Graves, A.R.; Matthews, R.B.; Waldie, K. Low external input technologies for livelihood improvement in subsistence agriculture. Advances in Agronomy (2003) 82: 474-555.