The emergence of informal and squatter settlements is linked to poor governance, the failure of formal systems, poor city planning, population explosions, and a lack of control by land owning agencies. Nevertheless, with an appropriate regulatory framework, continued improvement of housing, infrastructure and livelihoods is possible in informal settlements, largely through grassroots initiatives and through partnerships between CBOs, NGOs, local authorities an others. Ensuring security of tenure is an important first step to enable improvement to take place. Improvements in informal settlements can be developed and monitored according to the Sustainable Livelihoods Framework. The process of regulation of settlement development is assessed from cases in Pakistan and Sri Lanka.
Paper presented at the First RGUU International Workshop held at Bourton on Dunsmore, UK, May 17-18, 2001, 19 pp.
Livelihoods and regulations, regulatory guidelines for urban upgrading