Can you please provide links to existing material on corruption at ports and border points in Southern Africa? We are particularly interested at looking at forms of port and border corruption, the impact of corruption within ports on shipping and other transit corridors, and tools available to address these forms of corruption, including examples of training that can be/have been used.
Corruption in ports and borders mostly manifests itself in terms of collusive forms of corruption to evade tariffs and taxes and coercive bribery where port or customs officials extract bribes from companies or individuals for performing routine processes. There is a broad consensus in the literature that port and border corruption has a detrimental impact on shipping costs, trade, revenue collection as well as organised crime and security.
Chêne, M. Literature review on corruption at ports and border points in Southern Africa. U4 Anti-Corruption Resource Centre, CMI, Bergen, Norway (2013) 8 pp.