Lipid class distribution and fatty acid composition of wild and farmed prawn, Penaeus monodon (Fabricius)
Total lipid levels of the muscle of wild and farmed Penaeus monodon were similar (4.35% and 4.66% dry weight) whilst head lipid levels (hepatopancreas) were higher in farmed P. monodon (farmed 9.36%, wild 7.07%). The lipids of the muscle of wild P. monodon are mainly composed of phospholipid (70.5%), triglyceride (2.9%) and cholesterol (19.84%). Head lipids have higher triglyceride levels (9.18%) and lower levels of phospholipid (56.7%). Farmed P. monodon muscle lipids had lower levels of phospholipid (57.0%) and higher levels of triglyceride (8.46%) and cholesterol (24.17%) in comparison to wild P. monodon. Head lipids also showed lower phospholipid (39.23%) and higher triglyceride (25.93%). The composition of the phospholipids of wild and farmed P. monodon was similar excepting spingomyelin. The major fatty acids of the muscle phospholipids of wild P. monodon were 16:0 (13.0%), 16:1 (5.3%), 18:0 (13.2%), 18:1n−9 (8.4%), 18:2n−6 (1.9%), 20:4n−6 (12.9%), 20:5n−3 (13.6%) and 22:6n−3 (15.5%). Head phospholipids had almost the same profile. Farmed P. monodon phospholipid fatty acids were similar except that levels of 18:2n−6 (9.8%) were higher and 16:1 (1.79%) and 20:4n−6 (4.9%) lower. The lipid composition of hatchery and wild post-larvae (approximately post-larvae day 20) was dissimilar. Wild post-larvae lipid was almost entirely phospholipid (68.7%) and cholesterol (27.8%) whilst hatchery stock showed lower phospholipid levels and significant amounts of triglyceride (5.9–15.6%). Comparison of the fatty acids of the phospholipids showed that wild post-larvae had lower levels of 18:1n−9, 18:2n−6 and higher levels of 16:1 and 22:6n−3 (20.4% wild, 4.0% farmed). Analysis of diets fed to farmed P. monodon showed low levels of phospholipid and very high levels of free fatty acids, indicative of dietary lipid deterioration. Diets used for P. monodon are those which have been developed for P. japonicus. Differences, however, exist in the lipid composition and fatty acid profiles of the two wild stocks suggesting differing lipid formulations may be required in diets.
O’leary, C.D.; Matthews, A.D. Lipid class distribution and fatty acid composition of wild and farmed prawn, Penaeus monodon (Fabricius). Aquaculture (1990) 89 (1) 65-81. [DOI: 10.1016/0044-8486(90)90234-E]