Fifteen Boran cattle from a trypanosomiasis-free area were injected intramuscularly with isometamidium chloride at a dose of 1 mg/kg body weight. Thereafter, the cattle were challenged at monthly intervals with Glossina morsitans centralis infected with one of three populations of Trypanosoma congolense (IL 3893, IL 3889 or IL 1180) until all animals became infected. Isometamidium concentrations in the sera of these cattle were measured using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay over the first 105 days following treatment. All cattle challenged with IL 3893 or IL 3889 developed infection following the first challenge, at which time the mean serum drug concentration in all treated cattle was 6 ng/ml. Cattle challenged with IL 1180 became infected following 6 to 8 monthly challenges. The mean serum drug concentration in these cattle at the time of their third monthly challenge with IL 1180 was 0.75 ng/ml. Trypanosome populations IL 3893 and IL 3889 were considered to be highly resistant to isometamidium, while IL 1180, relatively sensitive. It was therefore concluded that T. congolense persisting at serum isometamidium concentrations greater than 0.75 ng/ml can be considered moderately resistant, while those persisting at concentrations greater than 6 ng/ml can be considered markedly resistant. These results will be most valuable in the investigation of isometamidium resistance of T. congolense in the field.
Eisler, M.C.; Arowolo, R.O.A.; Gault, E.A.; Moloo, S.K.; Holmes, P.H.; Peregrine, A.S. Isometamidium concentrations in the sera of Boran cattle: Correlation with prophylaxis against tsetse-transmitted Trypanosoma congolense. Acta Tropica (1994) 56 (1) 39-50. [DOI: 10.1016/0001-706X(94)90038-8]