International Policy Levers.
The paper reviews international policy levers relevant to the work of CRISE. The large range of policy areas which potentially affect ethnic relations and the work of CRISE include factors that determine: political, economic and social resource access and inequalities across ethnic groups; perceptions of difference; and willingness to resolve differences peacefully. Policies relevant to these areas are primarily determined at the national level. However, these are greatly influenced by international norms emanating from the international community. Some international institutions also have a significant direct impact on policy via their own expenditures and conditionality. Most international influence over the economy and social sectors is wielded by the International Financial Institutions - with the World Bank especially important in relation to relevant distributional and sectoral policies. A range of United Nations organs contribute to the formation of norms, as well as acting in conflict-ridden situations, and influencing development policy. Bilateral donors and international NGOs have a significant direct impact in some countries. Large international corporations, responsible for massive investments, might become a powerful lever, as the movement for corporate social responsibility gains ground. Global media - the internet and television - are, of course, of increasing influence. Some academic centres and think tanks also affect the formation of global norms of policy-making.
CRISE Policy Context Paper 1, Centre for Research on Inequality, Human Security and Ethnicity, Oxford, UK, 12 pp.