Contrary to popular belief, there has not been a unilinear displacement of customary panchayats by the formal structures of local governance such as gram panchayats. Rather there is evidence to suggest that customary institutions both influence and adapt to the existence of formal structures. The interface between customary panchayats and gram sabhas and its implications for participatory governance. A study in Mysore and Dharwad districts of Karnataka.
Ananthpur, K. Interfaces in Local Governance in Karnataka. Economic and Political Weekly (2002) :