An analysis was made of the contributions to increasing the productivity of crop-livestock systems by over 100 DFID-RNRRS research projects (from the CPP, LPP, PSRP, NRSP, CPHP and FRP). Most emphasis was on CPP and LPP projects in East and southern Africa. The context was contributions to reducing poverty for small-scale farmers and national economic growth. Potential for outputs generated in South Asia to spill-over to sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) was also considered. Important lessons and critical challenges to integrating crop-livestock R & D were highlighted to inform future DFID investment.