Cypermethrin, quinalphos, endosulfan and methomyl were bioassayed against strains of Helicoverpa armigera collected from field crops in Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu, South India, during the 1989-90 and 1990-91 cropping seasons. In 1989, high levels of resistance to cypermethrin were recorded in strains from cotton in the cotton-growing regions of Guntur, Andhra Pradesh and Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, and from pigeon pea near Hyderabad. There was no evidence for resistance to quinalphos or methomyl at that time. In 1990-91 sampling was more extensive and although tolerance to cypermethrin was lower than the previous season, the survey indicated that pyrethroid-resistant populations were present throughout much of Andhra Pradesh. Tolerance to quinalphos had increased slightly in 1990-91, while resistance to methomyl had increased substantially, particularly in the cotton-growing area of Guntur. Endosulfan tolerance had increased slightly compared to strains tested in 1986-88 in an earlier study. The geographic and temporal variations in severity of pyrethroid resistance in H. armigera in Andhra Pradesh are believed to arise because of dynamic interactions between local selection pressure and immigration of resistant and susceptible moths at certain times of the year.
Pesticide Science (1992) 34 (4) 355-364 [DOI: 10.1002/ps.2780340409]
Insecticide resistance in Helicoverpa armigera in south India