This helpdesk report addresses this question:
- What innovative water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) options exist for situations of severe population overcrowding and limited space?
- What lessons have been learned from their application?
A rapid review of the literature has found a selection of innovative WASH options available for situations of severe population overcrowding and limited spaces. Case study information was collated from African, Middle Eastern, South Asian and Caribbean countries. As requested, a number of experts were consulted for their opinion where there was a lack of project evaluations or grey literature.
K4D helpdesk reports provide summaries of current research, evidence and lessons learned. This report was commissioned by the UK Department for International Development.
Tull, K. (2017). Innovative WASH options in situations of severe overcrowding. K4D Helpdesk Report 227. Brighton, UK: Institute of Development Studies.