Seasonal rainfall in the Philippines is known to be modulated by ENSO phenomenon, with El Niño frequently contributing to reduced rainfall and drought while La Niña resulting in excessive rainfalls, floods and more intense typhoons. The alterations in rainfall patterns can have considerable feedback on solar radiation, air temperature, and soil moisture which can affect the ecosystem CO2 exchange. In this paper, we assessed the effects of the ENSO events (2008–mid 2010) on the seasonal climate conditions and determined how it affected the gross primary production (GPP), ecosystem respiration (Re), and net ecosystem production (NEP) of two contrasting rice environments: flooded and non-flooded.
Alberto, M.C.R.; Wassmann, R.; Hirano, T.; Miyata, A.; Kumar, A.; Padre, A.; Amante, M. Influence of climate variability on seasonal and interannual variations of ecosystem CO2 exchange in flooded and non-flooded rice fields in the Philippines. Field Crops Research (2012) 134: 80-94. [DOI: 10.1016/j.fcr.2012.05.002]