Androgenesis is a potentially valuable technique for recovering fish from gene banks composed of cryopreserved sperm, developing inbred lines, and analyzing patterns of inheritance. The procedure for producing diploid organisms whose nuclear DNA is wholly of paternal origin is dependent on: (1) the denucleation of host eggs, and (2) the inhibition of the first mitotic division in order to double the haploid sperm chromosome complement following fertilization of host eggs. Denucleation of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) eggs was carried out using UV irradiation. Treatment durations of 5–8 min (total dose of 450–720 J/m2) produced acceptable yields of viable denucleated eggs [22.9±1.6% (±SE) of controls] as estimated by the survival of haploid androgenetic tilapia to 48 h post-fertilization. Successful mitotic inhibition was accomplished using a heat-shock of 42.5 °C for 3–4 min, applied at 2.5-min intervals from 22.5 to 30 min post-fertilization (mpf). The mean survival of androgenetic diploid fish to yolk-sac absorption for treatment groups varied from 0.4% to 5.3%, relative to the controls. Differences in the suceptibility of eggs from different females to UV irradiation were a significant factor in the overall yield of androgenetic diploids. Paternal effects did not significantly influence the androgenetic yield, suggesting that individual males would not be selected against. For comparative purposes mitotic gynogenetic mitogyne diploids were produced from UV-irradiated sperm. Mean survival to yolk-sac absorption varied from 0.5% to 10.64%, relative to controls. Similar optima for androgenetic and gynogenetic induction were found in the period 25–27.5 mpf (minutes post-fertilization). Induction treatments would appear to be operating on the same developmental events in both these techniques, and the results suggest that the UV irradiations used do relatively little damage to the eggs beyond nuclear inactivation. The results indicate that the production of androgenetic O. niloticus is possible on a consistent basis and that the application of this technique may be useful in quantitative and conservation genetics.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics (1995) 90 (2) 205-210 [DOI: 10.1007/BF00222203]
Induction of diploid androgenetic and mitotic gynogenetic Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L)