In terms of increasing income, people achieve better results when working as individuals than in groups, possibly because peri-urban circumstances reduce social capital.
Mattingly, M., Gregory, P. and Walls, M. 2006. Individual efforts achieve greater peri-urban income growth than group-oriented activities. Policy brief. Annex G of the Final Technical Report of project R8491. London: Development Planning Unit, University College London. 2 pp.