The stated objective of the program to which this note is a contribution is to give guidance on the inclusion of social benefits within transport appraisal as the emphasis on poverty reductions and social benefits increases. The particular context of the program is that of low volume roads where it is asserted that traditional appraisal frameworks are particularly defective.
The main thrust of this contribution to the debate is to comment on the categorization of benefits and their relationship not only to the formal techniques of appraisal commonly used but also to the process of appraisal. The approach adopted is historical - examining how formal appraisal has developed, and the directions in which it is presently developing. It also considers the relationship of formal appraisal techniques to the processes of the international financial institutions and the role that they play.
Gwilliam, K. Inclusion of social benefits in transport planning. (2003)