The impact of cotrimoxazole (CTX) on growth and/or anemia was investigated in 541 human immunodeficiency virus-infected, antiretroviral therapy–naive Zambian children enrolled in the Children with HIV Antibiotic Prophylaxis trial. Compared with children randomized to receive placebo, children randomized to receive CTX had slower decreases in weight-for-age (P = .04) and height-for-age (P = .01), and greater increase in hemoglobin level (P = .01). These findings argue for expanded early CTX use.
Prendergast, A.; Walker, A.S.; Mulenga, V.; Chintu, C.; Gibb, D.M. Improved Growth and Anemia in HIV-Infected African Children Taking Cotrimoxazole Prophylaxis. Clinical Infectious Diseases (2011) 52 (7) 953-956. [DOI: 10.1093/cid/cir029]