Impact of the Serogroup A Meningococcal Conjugate Vaccine, MenAfriVac, on Carriage and Herd Immunity

Abstract

Background. The conjugate vaccine against serogroup A Neisseria meningitidis (NmA), MenAfriVac, was first introduced in mass vaccination campaigns of 1–29-year-olds in Burkina Faso in 2010. It is not known whether MenAfriVac has an impact on NmA carriage.

Methods. We conducted a repeated cross-sectional meningococcal carriage study in a representative portion of the 1–29-year-old population in 3 districts in Burkina Faso before and up to 13 months after vaccination. One district was vaccinated in September 2010, and the other 2 were vaccinated in December 2010. We analyzed 25 521 oropharyngeal samples, of which 22 093 were obtained after vaccination.

Results. In October–November 2010, NmA carriage prevalence in the unvaccinated districts was comparable to the baseline established in 2009, but absent in the vaccinated district. Serogroup X N. meningitidis (NmX) dominated in both vaccinated and unvaccinated districts. With 4 additional sampling campaigns performed throughout 2011 in the 3 districts, overall postvaccination meningococcal carriage prevalence was 6.95%, with NmX dominating but declining for each campaign (from 8.66% to 1.97%). Compared with a baseline NmA carriage prevalence of 0.39%, no NmA was identified after vaccination. Overall vaccination coverage in the population sampled was 89.7%, declining over time in 1-year-olds (from 87.1% to 26.5%), as unvaccinated infants reached 1 year of age. NmA carriage was eliminated in both the vaccinated and unvaccinated population from 3 weeks up to 13 months after mass vaccination (P = .003).

Conclusions. The disappearance of NmA carriage among both vaccinated and unvaccinated populations is consistent with a vaccine-induced herd immunity effect.

Citation

Kristiansen, P.A.; Diomandé, F.; Ba, A.K.; Sanou, I.; Ouedraogo, A.S.; Oeudraogo, R.; Sangare, L.; Kandolo, D.; Ake, F.; Saga, I.M.; Clark, T.A.; Misegades, L.; Martin, S.W.; Thomas, J.D.; Tiendrebeogo, S.R.; Hassan-King, M.; Djingarey, M.H.; Messonnier, N.E.; Preziosi, M.P.; LaForce, F.M.; Daugant, D.A. Impact of the Serogroup A Meningococcal Conjugate Vaccine, MenAfriVac, on Carriage and Herd Immunity. Clinical Infectious Diseases (2013) 56 (3) 354-363. [DOI: 10.1093/cid/cis892]

Impact of the Serogroup A Meningococcal Conjugate Vaccine, MenAfriVac, on Carriage and Herd Immunity

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