The paper explores the findings of a household livelihood survey among
poor households in the Western Cape district of Ceres, one of the
centres of the South African deciduous fruit export industry. It
considers the usefulness of the concept of \"social exclusion\" for
understanding chronic poverty in the context of relative surrounding
wealth. It argues that households' livelihood options can only be
understood in the context of the broader dynamics of globalized
agro-food restructuring and the modernisation of paternalist farming
styles in the context of political transition. Key components of chronic
poverty in Ceres are asset depletion, the stresses of seasonality and
the often disregarded and invisible \"dark sides\" of social and human
capital: criminality, violence, and the exploitative relationships of
the \"underground economy\". It argues that \"social exclusion,\" though
focussing welcome attention on the disabling effects of poverty, fails
for the most part as a way of making policy sense out of the dynamics
that keep poor people poor. It agrees with proposals that these are
better captured by the notion of adverse incorporation. The paper argues
that there is a need to go beyond modernising and trickle-down
approaches to development in Southern Africa, and makes recommendations
of some of the key requirements that need to be met if policy is to be
able to deal with the problems of chronic poverty.
Hunger in the Valley of Fruitfulness globalization, "social exclusion" and chronic poverty in Ceres, South Africa [Draft], presented at Staying Poor: Chronic Poverty and Development Policy, Institute for Development Policy and Management, University of Manchester, 7-9 April 2003. Chronic Poverty Research Centre (CPRC), Manchester, UK, i + 44 pp.
Hunger in the Valley of Fruitfulness globalization, “social exclusion” and chronic poverty in Ceres, South Africa [Draft].