This document argues that although HIV levels are currently low in Pakistan, a number of interventions are necessary to reduce the risk of transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections among high-risk groups, namely injecting drug users and sex workers (in particular transgender sex workers). These include needle and syringe exchange programmes, sexual and reproductive health care, targeted behaviour change communication and addressing problems of stigma, discrimination and human rights. Attitudes among society may make it easier for NGOs to deliver these interventions than it would be for the public sector.
Programme for Research and Capacity Building in Sexual and Reproductive Health and HIV in Developing Countries research briefing no. 1, April 2009.