Gross enrolment in higher education rose from 8.4% in 2008 to 12.2% in 2012, placing Ghana on a par with the wider African continent (11.6%) but below the average of lower-middle-income countries (22.9%).
The country’s higher education landscape is diversifying as a number of international institutions set up in Ghana. India’s Sikkim Manipal University, which established a campus in Accra in 2008, is one example. These, and other organisations such as the African Institute for Mathematical Sciences Ghana, are promoting co-operation across the African continent and beyond.
A number of bottlenecks remain in Ghana’s higher education landscape. Improving existing quality assurance mechanisms and expanding overall access to tertiary education are key challenges. Moreover, funding mechanisms for higher education institutions could provide incentives that foster continuous improvement and innovation.
The expansion of higher education in Ghana presents a number of opportunities for improvement. These include further expansion of distance learning, which is already making strong inroads in Ghana, and online learning, which will have a better platform for growth as the country’s energy and telecommunications infrastructure strengthens.
Growth in graduate numbers is outpacing growth of employment opportunities. To absorb the country’s graduates, Ghana must continue to diversify its economy, while higher education institutions must work towards developing curricula that meet the requirements of the labour market.
Guerrero, C. Higher education case studies - Ghana. Economist Intelligence Unit, London, UK (2014) 20 pp.