High Plasma Levels of Soluble Intercellular Adhesion Molecule (ICAM)-1 Are Associated with Cerebral Malaria
Background: Cerebral malaria (CM) is responsible for most of the malaria-related deaths in children in sub-Saharan Africa. Although not well understood, the pathogenesis of CM involves parasite and host factors which contribute to parasite sequestration through cytoadherence to the vascular endothelium. Cytoadherence to brain microvasculature is believed to involve host endothelial receptor, CD54 or intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, while other receptors such as CD36 are generally involved in cytoadherence of parasites in other organs. We therefore investigated the contributions of host ICAM-1 expression and levels of antibodies against ICAM-1 binding variant surface antigen (VSA) on parasites to the development of CM. Methodology/Principal Findings: Paediatric Plasmodium falciparum malaria patients in Ghana, 0.5 to 13 years old, were recruited and grouped into CM and uncomplicated malaria (UM) patients, based on well defined criteria. Standardized ELISA protocol was used to measure soluble ICAM-1 (sICAM-1) levels from acute plasma samples. Levels of IgG to CD36- or ICAM-1-binding VSA were measured by flow cytometry during acute and convalescent states. Wilcoxon sign rank-test analysis to compare groups revealed association between sICAM-1 levels and CM (p
Adukpo, S.; Kusi, K.A.; Ofori, M.F.; Tetteh, J.K.A.; Amoako-Sakyi, D.; Goka, B.Q.; Adjei, G.O.; Edoh, D.A.; Akanmori, B.D.; Gyan, B.A.; Dodoo, D. High Plasma Levels of Soluble Intercellular Adhesion Molecule (ICAM)-1 Are Associated with Cerebral Malaria. PLoS ONE (2013) 8 (12) 84181.