Helpdesk Report: Comparisons of outcomes of formal primary schooling and non-formal education in Asia
What evidence is there, for Asia in particular, comparing the learning achievements, employment opportunities and incomes of children who complete formal primary schooling (G1 - G5) with those who attend non formal education (NFE) centres (for example 2 or 3 year condensed courses combined with life skills)?
This response includes articles on education in Asia. Substantial evidence is lacking on the comparable effectiveness of non formal education versus formal primary schooling in terms of the learning achievements, employment opportunities and incomes of children who undertake either route. Development agencies report that a nine-month non formal programme raises children's education to the same level as Grades 1-3 of primary schooling. Most non formal education schools aim to get children into formal schooling as quickly as possible. The diversity of these schools renders an overall evaluation impossible. Most so-called 'non formal' schools are not genuinely non formal but semi-formal schools outside the mainstream system
Pennells, J. Helpdesk Report: Comparisons of outcomes of formal primaryschooling and non-formal education in Asia. Human Development Resource Centre, UK (2010) 5 pp.