This essay aims to examine stakeholder theory by paying attention to
three aspects, namely the history of the field, various typologies that
have been developed in the theory of stakeholder participation and the
process of stakeholder participation. Throughout it is also attempted to
present a critical review of the stakeholder participation literature
and to highlight various criticisms of the key concepts.
Firstly, the document contains an in-depth review of the field of
stakeholder theory, tracking the early roots of the field and how it has
evolved since the 1960s. Here we pay special attention to how the
various perspectives of stakeholder theory progressed from management
theory, policy and development, and how they influenced each other.
Secondly, we present an analysis of various key typologies of
stakeholder participation that have developed from various perspectives.
This includes the theoretical basis of stakeholder theory, the
typologies that have been developed in the literature that describe the
aims and objectives of stakeholder theory, the different degrees of
participation, and the nature of participation.
Thirdly, we describe the process of stakeholder participation and
provide key frameworks that have proven to be useful to guide the
stakeholder participation process. This section is intended to be more
practical and guides the reader through the process of planning and
Grobbelaar, S.S. Handbook Series: Stakeholder engagement and participation. DRUSSA (2014) 29 pp.
Handbook Series: Stakeholder engagement and participation