varying levels of evaluation and assessment documentation. Many of these
GRMs would not strictly be described as models but rather programmes, or
sets of activities within programmes, that provide redressal of
There is not a definitive list of essential components for GRMs.
Consequently this helpdesk report identifies a number of factors which
the literature suggests have been important in effective GRMs:
- Communication campaigns: These campaigns use different forms of media,
such as television, radio and print, to raise awareness about
grievance mechanisms. NGOs and community networks have helped further
publicise information by word-of-mouth.
- Management information systems: These, mainly computer-based, systems
often have a primary role in dealing with standard work caseload (e.g.
in registering cash transfer beneficiary details) but can be used to
handle and monitor grievances. Their benefit is in bringing together
relevant information in one place for officials to respond to
- Standard operating procedures or manuals: Certain practices are
established, reviewed and disseminated, often through operating
manuals. These can provide a clear overview to staff of programme
cycles so as to identify points in which grievances can be addressed,
as well as how to address them.
- Normalisation and incentivisation of grievance redressal: Treating
grievances as a normal and valuable part of the workload, for example
through performance benchmarks or training, can improve staff
performance in redressing grievances.
- Mobile telephones: The use of mobile phones, and in particular SMS
texts, seem to be a particularly valuable medium for dealing with
grievances. Phone-based mechanisms can involve call centres or
automated voice systems.
- Building on existing mechanisms: There can already be established
formal systems (e.g. within ministries or departments, information
centres, or judicial systems) and informal systems (e.g. councils of
village elders, or chiefs), on which to build grievance redressal
systems. These systems can be especially useful in dealing with ethnic
and linguistic diversity, or hard to reach groups.
Rao, S. Grievance Redress Mechanisms in Pakistan (GSDRC Helpdesk Research Report 1117). Governance and Social Development Resource Centre, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK (2014) 11 pp.