This paper is based on research into irrigation on about 20 schemes in Nepal since 2000, with detailed studies on one modern jointly managed scheme (Sunsari Morang - SMIP) and one traditional farmer managed scheme (Kamala Uttarabahini). In the case of SMIP, the main system was designed for centralised management, involving operation of many control structures, but a simple on-off system was adopted to avoid adjustments at tertiary level. This has many advantages but it differs from the system followed on indigenous irrigation in Nepal, where the main system is run on a
proportional basis but with flexible operation at tertiary level. Further, it is not followed in practice and users make many informal adjustments, which compromise the overall performance. This study has analysed performance of these two types of system, and identified the key features that influence whether management can be effectively devolved.
Howarth, S.E.; Parajuli, U.N.; Baral, J.R.; Nott, G.A.; Gautam, D.R.; Menuka, K.C.; Adhikari, B.R. Governance of Water Users’ Associations in Nepal. (2004)