The zwitterionic quaternary ammonium compound glycinebetaine was detected in all but three of over 100 species of various genera in the family Malvaceae. In a more limited range of species, particularly of Gossypium, glycinebetaine accumulated to concentrations sometimes in excess of 100 mM water in response to water deficit or salinity stress. Glycinebetaine concentrations were highest in young tissues and accounted for about 10% of the total nitrogen.
Gorham, J. Glycinebetaine is a major nitrogen-containing solute in the malvaceae. Phytochemistry (1996) 43 (2) 367-369. [DOI: 10.1016/0031-9422(96)00312-3]