Gene identification and allele-specific marker development for two allelic low phytic acid mutations in rice ( Oryza sativa L.).
Phytic acid (PA, myo-inositol 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakisphosphate) is an important anti-nutritional component in cereal and legume grains. PA forms of phosphorus (P) and its salts with micronutrient cations, such as iron and zinc, are indigestible in humans and non-ruminant animals, and hence could affect food/feed nutritional value and cause P pollution of ground water from animal waste.
We previously developed a set of low phytic acid (LPA) rice mutants with the aim to increase their nutritional quality. Among them, one line, i.e., Os-lpa-XQZ-1 (hereafter lpa 1-2), was identified to have a mutation allelic to the KBNT lpa 1-1 mutation (hereafter lpa 1-1), which was already delimited to a 47-kb region on chromosome 2. In this study, we searched the candidate gene for these two allelic LPA mutations using T-DNA insertion mutants, mutation detection by CEL I facilitated mismatch cleavage, and gene sequencing. The TIGR locus LOC_Os02g57400 was revealed as the candidate gene hosting these two mutations. Sequence analysis showed that the lpa 1-1 is a single base pair substitution mutation, while lpa 1-2 involves a 1,475-bp fragment deletion. A CAPS marker (LPA1_CAPS) was developed for distinguishing the lpa 1-1 allele from lpa 1-2 and WT alleles, and InDel marker (LPA1_InDel) was developed for differentiating the lpa 1-2 allele from lpa 1-1 and WT ones.
Analysis of two populations derived from the two mutants with wild-type varieties confirmed the complete co-segregation of these two markers and LPA phenotype. The LOC_Os02g57400 is predicted to encode, through alternative splicing, four possible proteins that are homologous to the 2-phosphoglycerate kinase reported in hyperthermophilic and thermophilic bacteria. The identification of the LPA gene and development of allele-specific markers are of importance not only for breeding LPA varieties, but also for advancing genetics and genomics of phytic acid biosynthesis in rice and other plant species.
Molecular Breeding (2008) 22 (4) 603-612 [doi: 10.1007/s11032-008-9202-6]