This report outlines a project intended to contribute to the reduction of poverty and suffering through enhancing gender-awareness in the design and management of development projects in contexts affected directly or indirectly by conflict. It aimed to achieve this by increasing understanding of the gender dimension of conflict, both for the humanitarian community and for development practitioners. The project sought to address two particular questions, namely how do gender relations change as a result of conflict? and how might conflict itself be fuelled by aspects of gender identity? It also examined the strategic and research implications of these findings for project design. The project ran from April 2000 to December 2001: field research was carried out in Sudan, Somalia, Uganda, Mali and Angola, with complementary desk studies for Eritrea and Rwanda. These case studies, and reports on workshops conducted by the project, are published in separate Annexes [not available].