Gender disadvantage and reproductive health risk factors for common mental disorders in women: a community survey in India
BACKGROUND: Gender disadvantage and reproductive health are major determinants of women's health in developing countries. OBJECTIVE: To determine the association of factors indicative of gender disadvantage and reproductive health with the risk of common mental disorders (CMDs) in women. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey from November 1, 2001, to June 15, 2003. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 3000 women randomly selected from a sampling frame of women aged 18 to 45 years in Goa; 2494 women participated. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was the presence of a CMD, as defined by the Revised Clinical Interview Schedule. An interview and blood and vaginal/urine specimens were collected to ascertain risk factors. RESULTS: The prevalence of CMD was 6.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.7%-7.6%). Mixed anxiety-depressive disorder was the most common diagnosis (64.8%). Factors independently associated with the risk for CMD were factors indicative of gender disadvantage, particularly sexual violence by the husband (odds ratio [OR], 2.3; 95% CI, 1.1-4.6), being widowed or separated (OR, 5.4; 95% CI, 1.0-30.0), having low autonomy in decision making (OR, 1.98; 95% CI, 1.2-3.2), and having low levels of support from one's family (OR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.4-3.3); reproductive health factors, particularly gynecological complaints such as vaginal discharge (OR, 3.2; 95% CI, 2.2-4.8) and dyspareunia (OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.4-4.6); and factors indicative of severe economic difficulties, such as hunger (OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.6-4.6). There was no association between biological indicators (anemia and reproductive tract infections) and CMD. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical assessment of CMD in women must include exploration of violence and gender disadvantage. Gynecological symptoms may be somatic equivalents of CMD in women in Asian cultures.
Patel, V.; Kirkwood, B.R.; Pednekar, S.; Pereira, B.; Barros, P.; Fernandes, J.; Datta, J.; Pai, R.; Weiss, H.; Mabey, D. Gender disadvantage and reproductive health risk factors for common mental disorders in women: a community survey in India. Archives of General Psychiatry (2006) 63: 404-413.