This report is a synthesis of the treatment of gender in the RNRRS projects funded over the past eleven years. The synthesis reviews a discrete number of projects that either directly or indirectly impacted on or addressed the issue of gender/women. Whilst there is a clear difference between 'women' and 'gender', the synthesis had to look at both issues because they are frequently used as synonyms in the projects under review. The synthesis finds that whilst considerable advances have been made recently (ie in the last five years or so) in terms of incorporating an understanding of gender relations into projects, there is still much to be done before gender can be considered to have been mainstreamed into DFID's funding of renewable natural resource programmes. The report identifies a number of encouraging signposts however: for example the use of a pre-project gender impact analysis by the CPHP and the AFGRP which has a dedicated 'gender' section on its website. The report suggests a number of ways that gender awareness could be better incorporated into future DFID funding of renewable natural resource programmes (in which ever form they eventually exist) but concludes that there is still considerable disquiet in some quarters that addressing gender in development work detracts from the issue in hand.