Gender and ethical trade: a mapping of the issues in African horticulture.
This paper examines codes of conduct in three specific commodity groups and countries exporting to EU markets: South African fruit, Kenyan flowers and Zambian vegetables. It maps the plethora of codes of conduct that now face producers in those countries, and assesses the extent to which gender issues are addressed in the process of code development, stakeholder participation, auditing, monitoring and verification. The paper also provides an initial framework for assessing gender issues in the context of ethical trade and codes of conduct, and the extent to which private sector codes are sufficient to redress gender inequity in the conditions of employment. Finally it makes recommendations on how gender can be more systematically addressed in the implementation of ethical trade, and highlights avenues for further research in this area.