Based on a survey of couples in long-term unions in Masaka and Lira districts in Uganda, we critically examine the role of gender inequality in the domain of decision-making about fertility and sex in the discussion and use of condoms. First, we document the sexual context and process of condom negotiation from the perspectives of women and men. Next, we test the hypothesis that increases in the relative influence of women, compared to their male partners, in decision-making about sex and fertility should enhance the likelihood of discussion and use of condoms. The result point to barriers that exist for both men and women but show a clear disadvantage for women. They also suggest that, for both partners, a sense of control over fertility has a positive effect on condom use, and that the effect of women's empowerment does not seem to diminish the effect of men's empowerment.
African Journal of Reproductive Health (2001) 5 (3) 15-28