Today, there is still debate about how to identify vulnerable groups, target resources and design projects to increase the income and improve the quality of life of the very poor. Much discourse, activity and funds have been spent on connecting small-scale growers to international markets, examining and overcoming international market private standards, plus attempting to make processes sustainable now and in the future. Yet despite so much close attention, all too often the withdrawal of support and donor funds signals project decline and eventual demise. The question is why? This paper seeks to highlight how fundamentally different the basis, outlook and governing factors of different project approaches (production or market oriented) are, plus the respective outcomes. It also examines the perception and the role of private standards in this perspective.
International Institute for Environment and Development, London, UK, 2 pp.