Private voluntary standards (PVS) are becoming more frequent and complex and have both positive and negative effects on producers in developing countries. Some years ago, UNCTAD created the Consultative Task Force (CTF) on Environmental Requirements and Market Access for Developing Countries to help facilitate a dialogue between public and private stakeholders on the impact of and adjustment to PVS. (So far, CTF work has focused on two sectors: electrical and electronic equipment and horticulture, in particular fresh fruit and vegetables (FFV)). This paper focuses on the experiences of Sub-Saharan Africa, largely based on case studies carried out by experts in Ghana, Kenya and Uganda and a series of stakeholder dialogues in these countries, organised jointly with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO).
International Institute for Environment and Development, London, UK, 2 pp.